Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or [best practice]s can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result. The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.
These methods , described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated. When proper to a study of methodology, such processes constitute a constructive generic framework , and may therefore be broken down into sub-processes, combined, or their sequence changed.
A paradigm is similar to a methodology in that it is also a constructive framework. In theoretical work, the development of paradigms satisfies most or all of the criteria for methodology.
Any description of a means of calculation of a specific result is always a description of a method and never a description of a methodology. It is thus important to avoid using methodology as a synonym for method or body of methods. Doing this shifts it away from its true epistemological meaning and reduces it to being the procedure itself, or the set of tools, or the instruments that should have been its outcome. A methodology is the design process for carrying out research or the development of a procedure and is not in itself an instrument, or method, or procedure for doing things.
It is here that the general dialectic of the interaction of the end and means of activity becomes manifest: However, the current problems of methodology are not exhausted by this transformation of means to ends and ends to means, since knowledge specially intended to perform methodological functions has become a reality. The diversity of this knowledge is made evident by the existence of its several classifications. One of the most widely accepted, though somewhat arbitrary, divisions of methodological knowledge is into the substantive and the formal.
The formal aspect of methodology is related to the analysis of the language of science; the formal structure of the scientific explanation; the description and analysis of formal and formalized research methods, in particular, the methods used to formulate scientific theories and the conditions for the logical truth of these theories; and the typology of systems of knowledge.
It was precisely this set of problems that raised the question of the logical structure of scientific knowledge and established scientific methodology as an independent field of knowledge. The neopositivists, who first applied the methods of modern formal logic to the analysis of scientific knowledge, made a significant contribution to scientific methodology. However, in their philosophical-methodological interpretation of the results obtained, the neopositivists greatly exaggerated the formal aspect of methodology, ignoring the substantive aspect and the problem of the development of knowledge.
Research in this field of methodology is now very closely related to research in the logic of science. The division of methodology into different levels of methodological analysis is of fundamental importance.
In general, a distinction is made between philosophical methodology and the methodology of specific sciences. Philosophical methodology does not exist as a special branch of philosophy—the entire system of philosophical knowledge performs methodological functions. As scientific development has shown, dialectical and historical materialism provides the most adequate philosophical basis for scientific knowledge.
As methodology of science in general, the dialectic and materialism are equally important, and dialectical and historical materialism function as a methodology that deals with knowledge of human society.
Because dialectical materialism directs the investigator toward discovery of an objective dialectics, which it expresses in laws and categories, it performs its heuristic role. The world-view weltanschauliche interpretation of scientific results, given from the standpoint of the dialectic and materialism, is also of very great methodological significance.
One of the cardinal methodological problems that arise in this connection deals with the determination of the specific nature of various fields of knowledge, in particular the specific nature of knowledge in the humanities in comparison with natural scientific knowledge for example, one must take into account the fact that in the humanities the values, class, and party affiliations of the investigator directly affect his approach and one must recognize the necessity of correctly interpretating the complex structure of purposeful human activity and its results.
Modern philosophical-methodological research has led to important discoveries concerning the functioning and development of cognition. In particular, the English logician and philosopher K.
Popper tried to explain this process on the basis of his falsifiability criterion, that is, the systematic refutation of existing theories. Kuhn, an American historian of science, viewed scientific progress in terms of scientific revolutions that lead to a radical change in paradigms a term that he proposed of scientific thought. Lakatos, an English mathematician and philosopher, proposed that scientific progress is based on the advancement and implementation of a specific sequence of research programs.
An important aspect of the work of these and other researchers was the extensive criticism of the narrowness of the premises of the neopositivist concept of the methodology of science and its subject matter. In this regard, certain Soviet and foreign specialists worked out a concept of methodology based on the principle of activity. The methodology of specific sciences is divided into several levels: The first level, which is far from uniform in content, has developed very rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century.
The rapid growth of this level has been due to the universalization of the means of cognition that made it easier to formulate scientific problems in a generalized way and the desire for synthesis—a trend that is becoming dominant in modern science. Among the general scientific methodological concepts and trends are theories of the problem-content type, which directly describe existing phenomena from the standpoint of a well-defined methodological principle such as W.
The methodological functions of general scientific methodological concepts and trends are twofold: By virtue of their general scientific character, these methodological concepts are quite closely related to philosophical methodology, although they do not by any means coincide with it.
The functions of these concepts are limited by directing scientific research toward a definite object and providing it with specialized analytical apparatus; philosophical methodology invariably includes a world-view interpretation of the foundations of research and its results.
However, the philosophical closeness and broad, general scientific character of modern trends in methodology lead to the important stress placed on philosophical premises. For example, one of the important foundations of the systems approach lies in its specific treatment of the principle of entirety.
The development of the structuralist methodology requires a thorough examination of the relation between structure and history. Therefore, the philosophical interpretation of a methodology plays a dual role: The interdisciplinary nature of the general scientific trends in methodology and their closeness to philosophical problems occasionally give rise to an unjustified tendency to universalize these trends and to elevate them to philosophical or even ideological concepts.
The substantive basis of this tendency toward universalization lies in the incorrect identification of the methodology of philosophy with that of the specifically scientific aspects of methodology and the related attempts to interpret methodological definitions as applicable to all phenomena and to regard the methodological aims of a single trend in methodology as the absolute goal of all knowledge.
Inparticular, such attempts at universalization occurred in the history of structuralism in the humanities; they have also been found in some interpretations of the systems approach.
The constructive role of the materialist dialectic as the methodology of science lies in its demonstration of the unfoundedness of such attempts and its ability to determine the true potential and limits of each form of specific science including general science methodology.
FormaVnaia logika i metodologiia nauki. For finding or exploring research questions, a researcher faces lot of problems that can be effectively resolved with using correct research methodology Industrial Research Institute, References Industrial Research Institute Research management. Juta and Company Ltd. The Romance of Research. I will right away seize your rss as I can not in finding your e-mail subscription link or newsletter service.
Please let me understand so that I may subscribe. Okay post, but not the best Ive seen exactly. You should step it up or verdens beste gulrotkake will eat your position. I am not sure where you are getting your information, but good topic.
I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic info I was looking for this information for my mission. This is my first visit to your blog!
In the workshop various aspects have been discussed related to research methodology, including critical thinking in research, research process, how to write a research paper, and research ethics, etc.
Research Methodology is a way to find out the result of a given problem on a specific matter or problem that is also referred as research problem. In Methodology, researcher uses different criteria for solving/searching the given research problem.
The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could include both present and historical information. Research Methodology: An Introduction 1 1 Research Methodology: An Introduction MEANING OF RESEARCH Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.
From field research to analysis and evaluation efforts, GIS Research Methods adopts a wide-ranging perspective and approach that doesn't rely on a particular program's version or incarnation to prove successfully accessible. 2 the section of a research proposal in which the methods to be used are described. The research design, the population to be studied, and the research instruments, or tools, to be used are discussed in the methodology. methodological, adj.