There are several causes for this; for one, individuals often produce large amounts of mucous. When this is coupled with immunodeficiency in the individual, infection may easily occur. Also due to immunodeficiency, children with Down syndrome have a higher incidence of upper respiratory infections which can predispose chronic lasting at least six weeks otitis media.
Upper respiratory infections or allergies may result in a swollen Eustachian tube which may entrap bacteria and may result in otitis media. Symptoms of otitis media include ear otalgia, which refers to ear pain, fever, and otorrhea, which refers to discharge of the ear. To diagnose otitis media, an otoscopic examination will often be effective. The doctor will be looking to see a tympanic membrane that is normal in color, pink to gray, and it should be slightly translucent.
An inflammed, red or engorged eardrum will point towards infection, as well as a tympanic membrane that bulges outward, retracts inward, or shows signs of perforation. Other options are tympanometry to test the middle ear function and test for fluid.
If a child experiences chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, treatment may include pressure equalization tubes which can eliminate the chronic episodes. These tubes are placed in the eardrum and allow air to enter the middle ear. The downside of the tubes is that they may need to be replaced. For chronic ear infections, anti-biotic medication may also be considered. Glue ear is also called secretory otitis media or otitis media with effusion.
Like regular otitis media, it has a high incidence in Down syndrome children. A mucous like fluid secretes and gathers in the middle ear, which should only be filled with air, and covers the ossicles, preventing them from moving normally, which results in reduced hearing levels.
While glue ear is common, Down syndrome provides extra complications to this condition. For one, the glue-like substance is stickier which makes it more difficult to wash and prone to infection.
Again, anatomy may affect the condition because if the Eustachian tubes are narrower and more horizontal, it will be difficult for the Eustachian tube to let the middle ear drain. Treatment of glue ear is essential because, if left untreated, glue ear may result in irreversible damage to the middle ear, this may be due to the lack of motility of the ossicles.
Fortunately, there are three main approaches to treating glue ear: The procedure to inset pressure equalization tubes is called a myringotomy operation and refers to the small cut made in the tympanic membrane which may also be done as a separate procedure.
It is generally performed with the patient under a general anesthetic. If the fluid is very viscous a cut will be made to let air into the middle ear space while the other cut drains the fluid.
Pressure equalization tubes go through the tympanic membrane, relieving the often painful pressure of the fluid against the eardrum, and allow for the fluid in the middle ear to drain into the external auditory canal. The tube is held in place by the tension in the tympanic membrane. The pressure equalization tubes will be pushed out of the tympanic membrane after a few months to a year of having them in place, but if they are placed correctly they are extremely effective, allowing the fluid to leave the middle ear space.
If an adenoidectomy is to be performed as well, it will probably be during the same surgery. Adenoidectomy removes the adenoids if they are enlarged. Removal may be beneficial because it is behind the adenoids that glue ear may reoccur after pressure equalization tube placement. Another option is microsuction, which involves inserting a needle through the tympanic membrane and using it to draw out the fluid.
The upside to this procedure is that the fluid does not end up in the external auditory canal and have to be cleaned, which is especially helpful in children with Down syndrome with narrow canals. The downside of microsuction is that it often requires several procedures. Like glue ear, cerumen impaction is a very common otologic pathology, and it has a high incidence in individuals with Down syndrome.
It is a common cause of conductive hearing loss. Ear wax is meant to protect the skin of the canal, especially when it is filled with water. Normally, the wax should move towards the opening of the ear it is easily washed away.
As mentioned before, individuals with Down syndrome often have cerumen that is abnormally hard or thick and accumulates quickly in a narrow ear canal and may quickly block the canal with partial or full occlusion. This may result in a reversible conductive hearing loss. The combination of the accumulation of thick cerumen and auditory canal stenosis can quickly lead to a conductive hearing loss. The symptoms of impacted cerumen are earaches, the sensation of plugged ears, tinnitus, and some hearing loss.
To remove the ear wax, oil can be used to soften the cerumen. This may also be done as a preventative measure. Many cases of cerumen impaction may be treated at home, but in cases of auditory canal stenosis, the family may have an otolaryingologist remove the wax.
Irrigation of the ear canal may also be effective, but irrigation should never be performed if the tympanic membrane may be perforated as this could lead to acoustic trauma or otitis media. The cholesteatoma may continue to enlarge to the point where it will destroy bone. If untreated, lesions may break through the temporal bone and apply pressure to the brain, which may result in infection that may, in turn, lead to intercranial abscesses. If an individual complains of otorrhea discharge from the ear or hearing loss, an otolaryngologist should realize that cholesteatoma might be present Bacciu et al.
Cholesteatomas may cause irreversible hearing loss but fortunately, most incidences may be cured through surgery. The surgery's outcome depends on the size of the cholesteaoma when it is diagnosed.
For children, it is important that lesions in the tympanic membrane are diagnosed by a pediatrician and that the child is then referred to an otolaryngologist. The cholesteatoma will be first noticeable as a round cyst, white in color, that can be seen behind the tympanic membrane, which is still in tact. If the cholesteatoma goes unnoticed, it will grow and the middle ear space will have a large white mass that bulges outward. Nelson; Tori Huffman; Jennifer A. The CDC estimates that every hour, a child is born in the United States with permanent neurologic disability resulting from human cytomegalovirus HCMV infection—more than is caused by Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and neural tube defects combined.
A maternal vaccine to block Eugene Yu, David L. Bennett, Linda Greensmith, Elizabeth M. In general, learning by observation reduces the time and the attempts needed to learn complex actions and behaviors. Benefits of a definitive diagnosis include an end to the diagnostic odyssey, informed prognosis, Crawley, Genes, Brain and Behavior, Abstract Mutant mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders with intellectual disabilities provide useful translational research tools, especially in cases where robust cognitive deficits are reproducibly detected.
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of 60 angiogenic factors Individuals with DS have a unique facial appearance that can include form changes and altered variability. Using 3D photogrammatic images, 3D coordinate locations of Down syndrome DS caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.
Although the prenatal diagnosis of DS has become feasible, there are no therapies available for the rescue of DS-related neurocognitive impairment. A growth inducer newly identified Areas of current and future research activity include the development of clinical trials for testing medical interventions and therapeutics in those with Down syndrome, the development and characterization of mouse models for understanding Down syndrome and testing the effectiveness of various medications, and the exploration of a variety of health systems' research questions.
Future research related to health care disparities and Down syndrome focuses on ways to increase access to medical care and to increase life expectancy, particularly among underrepresented minorities.
Another issue that needs to be addressed is the dearth of adult health care providers with expertise to provide appropriate medical care for those with Down syndrome who are now adults. To identify ways to ease the transition between adolescent care for those with Down syndrome and adult lifestyles, the following questions should be considered:.
Some of these are listed below. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email. Research Activities and Scientific Advances Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division that results in the presence of an additional copy of chromosome 21 trisomy 21 or additional chromosomal 21 material.
Institute Activities and Advances Other Activities and Advances Institute Activities and Advances The Institute's portfolio covers a broad range of research areas, including the causes, treatment, and prevention of Down syndrome. Improvements in learning in a Down syndrome animal model Using a mouse model for Down syndrome, NICHD researchers showed that by administering neuroprotective peptides small protein sub units to mice before birth, they perform better on memory and learning tasks as adults.
Some other recent scientific advances related to Down syndrome include: An assessment of gastrointestinal anomalies by sex, race, and ethnicity PMID: The NICHD Developmental Biology and Structural Variation Branch examines areas relevant to normal and abnormal development, such as the processes, patterns, and genetics of organ and central nervous system development.
The Branch also supports research on epigenetic and genomic regulation of gene expression, and on developmental neurobiology. The Institute's Section on Gamete Development, which is part of the Division of Intramural Research DIR , researches meiosis a cellular process of reduction and division, pronounced mahy-OH-sis to understand the mechanisms that lead to chromosome missegregation, which can cause Down syndrome and other disorders.
In addition, the DIR's Section on Implantation and Oocyte Physiology validates model organisms for their use in studying chromosomal abnormalities in human embryos and identifying new tests to detect chromosomal abnormalities in early embryos.
Recent studies explore the neurodevelopmental impact of congenital heart defects on people with Down syndrome. Based on recent findings, scientists believe that short chromosome 21 telomere length may become a biomarker for early stages of dementia in people with Down syndrome, which currently can be difficult to identify. Researchers are assessing ways to improve communication between parents and children with Down syndrome.
One study is testing a portable electronic device designed to motivate increased physical activity among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities IDDs and to monitor their progress.
Down Syndrome Research Paper Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition in which an individual possesses extra genetic material, specifically an extra complete or partial duplicate of chromosome 21 in some or all of an individuals cells.
- Down Syndrome: An Intellectual and Developmental Disability While researching exceptionalities in the textbook Educating Exceptional Children, I chose to research further into Down syndrome.
Speech and Down Syndrome Research Papers Speech and Down Syndrome research papers examine problems with down syndrome children for educators. Research papers on speech and Down syndrome link the two and examine how speech is affected in a child with Down Syndrome. View Research Paper Outline Topic: Down syndrome from BIOL at Virginia State University. Jennetta Green Research Paper Outline Topic: Down syndrome Introduction (Background Information/History)%(8).
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