It is thought that hemp was first brought to the New World in by the Spanish; it was introduced in Jamestown by the English in where it became a major commercial crop alongside tobacco and was grown as a source of fiber. Our forefathers grew hemp; in fact it was the principal crop at Mount Vernon and it was a secondary crop at Monticello.
There are recorded notes made by George Washington regarding the cultivation and harvesting of hemp. These hemp crops, of course, were grown for industrial use only and there is no indication that our forefathers were using their crops recreationally!
Today the hemp grown for industrial purposes have extremely low levels of THC Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol delta 9-THC , the active component in cannabis therefore it is impossible to get high from such hemp grown for industrial use.
During the Colonial Era Americans were legally bound to grow hemp. During the Second World War the federal government subsidized hemp and US farmers grew about a million acres of hemp as part of that program.
Hemp is extraordinary in its diversity. There are over 25, different uses for the hemp plant! Almost any product that can be made from wood, cotton, or petroleum including plastics can be made from hemp. FN6 In fact, hemp plastics are biodegradable!! Besides its diversity, the practicality of utilizing hemp to its fullest potential is clear. It should be noted that the selling hemp products are not illegal and in fact the U. Interestingly, the congressional hearings on marijuana prohibition lasted all of two hours in direct contract to most congressional hearings on new laws which last for days and days.
There were exactly three bodies of testimonies testifying at these hearings. The first was Commissioner Harry Anslinger, the newly named commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics who happened to be appointed by his uncle-in-law, Andrew Mellon, who was the Secretary of the United States Treasury. Not surprisingly he was working from a text which he had not written himself but which had been written for him by a New Orleans District Attorney. Reading directly from this text Commissioner Anslinger told the Congressmen at the hearings, "Marihuana is an addictive drug which produces in its users insanity, criminality, and death.
The second body of testimony to testify at this congressional hearing were industrial spokesmen. The first of these spokesmen was, believe it or not, a man representing the rope industry. This industry representative testified that it was cheaper to import from the Far East the hemp needed to make ropes and therefore the United States no longer needed to grow any more hemp to make rope.
Interestingly, five years later, in , the United States was cut off from its sources of hemp in the Far East and, since we needed a lot of hemp to outfit our ships with rope for World War II, the Federal Government went into the business of growing hemp on gigantic farms throughout the Midwest and the South.
The only industrial spokesperson who objected to the Marihuana Tax Act at all was the birdseed representative who sung the praises of hemp seeds for the birds coats. Based on this objection the birdseed industry got an exemption from the Marihuana Tax Act for "denatured seeds. The third body of testimony were two representatives of the medical field. The first testimony came from a pharmacologist who claimed that he had injected the active ingredient in marihuana into the brains of dogs, two of which died.
When asked by the Congressmen if he choose dogs for the similarity of their reactions to that of humans the answer of the pharmacologist was, "I wouldn't know, I am not a dog psychologist.
The second testimony on behalf of the medical field came from the Chief Counsel to the American Medical Association, Dr. Woodward was the hearing to testify at the request of the American Medical Association.
His exact quote to the congressmen was, "The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marihuana is a dangerous drug.
The act did not itself criminalize the possession or usage of marijuana but instead levied a tax of approximately one dollar on anyone who dealt commercially in marijuana. The intended result and indeed, the result of the Marihuana Tax Act was to effectively make it too risky for anyone to deal in the substance. During the war years the Bureau chose to concentrate on opiates and abandoned responsibility for most marijuana law enforcement to the states.
In the post-war years, however, there was found to be a significant increase in narcotic drug abuse and the public began to be concerned with the spread of narcotic addiction, particularly among young persons. Congressional furor was aroused by the assertion that the use of marihuana inevitably led to the use of these harder drugs, particularly heroin. It was at this time, for the first time in federal drug legislation, that marijuana and the narcotic drugs were lumped together, since the Act provided uniform penalties for the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act Boggs Act, ibid.
The states followed the federal lead. Then, in , Congress passed the Narcotic Control Act, escalating the penalties still further. Once again the individual states followed suit. The current Controlled Substances Act CSA , Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of is a consolidation of numerous previous laws regulating the manufacture and distribution of narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, anabolic steroids, and chemicals used in the illicit production of controlled substances.
The CSA places all substances that are regulated under existing federal law into one of five schedules. This placement is based upon the substance's medicinal value, harmfulness, and potential for abuse or addiction.
Schedule I is reserved for the most dangerous drugs that have no recognized medical use, and, of course, is the current classification of marijuana. Just one year's savings would cover the full cost of anti-terrorism port security measures required by the Maritime Transportation Security Act of A further comprehensive study which reports and analyzes national arrest data between and is, "Crimes of Indiscretion: This report includes a detailed examination of the fiscal costs associated with the enforcement of marijuana laws at the state and county level.
FN22 The findings include but are not limited to the following: However, these increased arrest rates have not been associated with a reduction in marijuana use, reduced marijuana availability, a reduction in the number of new marijuana users, reduced treatment admissions, reduced emergency room mentions of marijuana, any reduction in marijuana potency, or any increases in the price of marijuana.
Decriminalization saves a tremendous amount in enforcement costs. Any discussion of marijuana should begin with the fact that there have been numerous official reports and studies, every one of which has concluded that marijuana poses no great risk to society and should not be criminalized. There are many conflicting views on how marijuana affects the mind and body. That in itself speaks volumes. It is also interesting to note that, to the best of anyone's knowledge, not one person has ever died from a marijuana overdose.
That most definitely cannot be said of alcohol. The La Guardia Report is a treasure trove of information regarding the affects of marijuana on a person sociologically, medically, psychologically and pharmacologically. Robert Peterson offers a critical analysis of how marijuana transformed from a cultural fad into a serious form of alternative therapy to common disorders. Firstly, Peterson acknowledged the general complexity of even taking this medication seriously as so much cultural backlash has been presented against it.
He then analyzed the effects of marijuana on specific traits: Moreover, Peterson also remarked about the effects on learning, impairment of motor skills, the heart and other vital bodily organs. This research article will prove useful in providing another medical perspective in the positive and adverse effects of medical marijuana, despite its individual and societal benefits.
This source analyzed both the pros and cons of using medical marijuana based on the testimony of various physicians across diverse disciplines within the medical field. In promoting the use of the drug, many doctors testified that medical marijuana was an effective use of an alternative treatment strategy. Moreover, this drug worked very well when compared to other more conventional drugs. However, doctors on the other end of the spectrum claim that the same treatment may be beneficial for the long term, it is nonetheless bad for the overall health of humans.
This source will be beneficial in applying professional testimony in determining whether medical marijuana should or should not be used. This comprehensive research looks at the overall picture of marijuana use and the effects from a pharmacological standpoint. The authors go in detail about how marijuana affects the brain, vital bodily organs, reproductive organs and affects overall behavior. They also described what goes in the brain during marijuana use.
This article will be very useful in analyzing marijuana from a pharmacological point of view. It will give my research paper more scientific support for my evidence because it will be supported by these skilled researchers.
This early government publication is a comprehensive study about a wide range of marijuana based information. First, the book argues largely that marijuana is extremely bad for your health and that its addictive nature will only make the user have negative behavior. Second, there are health repercussions from inhaling smoke and such. Finally, marijuana is said to cause intense social problems because it deters our youth from working and going to school.
This article will be useful because it gives an older comprehensive analysis of marijuana. Tatiana Shohov offers a very thorough background on the historical events regarding the use of medical marijuana.
Shohov offered relevant background information about how much US citizens use it and the federal perspective of this fact. Moreover, she offered a historical analysis of how the DEA and FDA analyzed what kind of drug and under what circumstances it would be acceptable to use.
Finally, Shohov described the general implications of using the drug both recreationally and medically. She referenced other medical professionals and their relevant studies.
This source will be useful in going over the background information and literature review for my research paper. This article studied the relationship between marijuana use and cases of cancer.
The study that they used was of almost 65, California residents who have cancer and have used marijuana regularly. The results showed that using medical marijuana did not increase the likelihood of cancer getting worse. Other factors like smoking and alcohol use were also taken into account. However, the research did suggest that use of marijuana may be associated with exposure to higher levels of risk with those who do not have cancer yet.
This article will be useful in analyzing some health related studies regarding the use of medical marijuana. It is a combination of chemicals from the marijuana herb and is sprayed into the mouth. Sativex is approved in more than 20 countries to treat muscle spasms from MS and cancer pain. No single organization tracks all research studies of medical marijuana and marijuana-based drugs and herbs. The following review is a summary of controlled studies since Patients were less agitated and ate better after treatment.
Two animal studies show that chemicals in marijuana may help symptoms of some forms of autism. Several studies on animal and human cells and a small study on 9 people suggested THC and other cannabinoids chemicals derived from cannabis might slow the growth of brain cancer.
Multiple lab studies in human cells have also shown the potential for them to slow other kinds of cancers, such as breast cancer and leukemia ; no studies in people have taken place. More than 45 studies have looked at marijuana and pain related to chronic diseases such as cancer , diabetes , fibromyalgia , multiple sclerosis , HIV, rheumatoid arthritis , and spinal injuries. The studies have included smoked marijuana, along with herbal and man-made forms. The majority of the studies showed an improvement in pain relief in comparison to a placebo or to other traditional pain medications.
About a quarter of the studies showed no improvement. Personal stories and animal studies have shown that cannabidiol, one of the chemicals in cannabis, may help seizures in children with epilepsy.
New York University just announced it will do a study of children with epilepsy and marijuana. Some of the results included a reduction in bowel inflammation and reduced acid reflux. Further, some patients were able to retain more nutrients in their bodies, and the disease went into remission.
In this paper I will discuss the history of marijuana, the industrial uses of hemp, the prohibition of marijuana, the economical impact prohibition has on America, the effects of marijuana use on the mind and the body, marijuana for medical use, and how legalization of marijuana would have a positive influence on America.
Although many are against the legalization of marijuana, this paper will argue that the legalization of marijuana is warranted. It will prove this by weighing marijuana’s effects on the body when smoked against the effects on the body when drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco, by presenting research facts on its medicinal qualities, and.
Legalizing Marijuana Essay Example Research Paper on Legalizing Marijuana. Nowadays medical and cultural aspects united with each other due to heated discussions dedicated to the use of medical marijuana. Free marijuana papers, essays, and research papers. The Legalization of Marijuana - Medical marijuana is one of the most controversial subjects in politics.
This research is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing marijuana for medicinal use demonstrating how the different viewpoints generate business opportunities that can be extremely difficult to . Read this Miscellaneous Research Paper and over 88, other research documents. Legalization of Marijuana. Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana became popular as a medicine in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century and used to /5(1).