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Essay: Communism and Socialism – A Struggle of Ideals

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❶During the world looked on with amusement as communist governments in Eastern Europe collapsed and were replaced with governments committed to democracy and the free market. Arthur Miller's The Crucible focuses on the fearful relationship between society and the individual "Readings on Arthur Miller"

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The Tsarist opposition consisted of largely the upper class educated citizens of the Soviet State. The masses or poor peasants in the case of the Soviet Union did not have any hand in bringing communism to the light. In fact, the Soviet Communism came into power, having been led by one individual, Vladimir Lenin.

Many believe that the processes involving the rise of communism in both countries played a major role in the shaping the framework of civil liberties and human development in general. While the Soviets did not adopt an efficient and effective structure for establishing national identity, the Chinese made use of their mindset and the Confucius ideology in creating a national identity every citizen could relate to.

They believed in the Marxist-Leninist ideology rather than the ideology of natural law Weiler, Freedom of association and assembly was significantly limited, atheism was promoted, and citizens had no right to practice religion, emigration and travel were not permitted unless there was an explicit reason to travel as well as government permission and human rights activist in most situations were subjected to harassments, arrests and repression.

Civil liberties in the Soviet Union were almost nonexistent. Genuine political and civil rights of the masses deemed an illusion and were strictly limited. The communist party in the Soviet Union advocated an ideology or conception of civil liberty that was very much different from that of the Chinese as well as that of the West.

While the Chinese were more sensitive about the rights of the masses, the Soviets emphasized the rights of society as a whole and disregarded any form of individualism. In spite of the fact that the Soviet communist party in its era of communist rule could not foster a clear national identity, as well as not being able to get the consent of the majority in its activities, its reform policies were equally not welcoming.

The Chinese on the other hand had reforms that were positively oriented and thus supported human development within an economic perspective and context. Deng advocated for globalization, and pursued economic reforms rather than political liberalization Fazleen et al, Gorbachev did exactly the opposite. He closed the doors of the Soviet Union to globalization and pursued political liberalization. Thus, the general difference between the two countries in terms of economic development during the communist era lies in the fact that China placed its emphasis and focused on strong economic reforms and as such developed a strong economy, soon after political liberalization was achieved.

This system was perceived as more viable, especially within a Communist government as it was thought of that if a viable economy was to be achieved then a country would have to open up to international activity. Only then would its political reforms be able to manifest the desired results.

The communist political reforms did not promote human development via economic growth, the people lost hope and did not trust the government because it did not provide for them what they needed.

Economic growth was an illusion in the Soviet Communist era. In China it was a different story. The Communist party put less influence on controlling the people and more influence on economic boom thus the masses were pleased with the government. Moreover some of the Chinese communist reforms allowed for relatively significant economic freedom to the Chinese people.

Let us remember that, China had already achieved a true mass movement with communism at its birth, while the Soviet Union had been created and largely based on the ideologies of one man. The pragmatic ideologies of Chinese communism can be seen in every sphere of the Chinese economy till date.

The Soviet Union failed in internationalizing communism. The Soviet Union miscalculated the importance of economic growth and its impact on human development, it equally undermined the concept of national identity of the diverse people and ethnicities it had under its authority. Political reforms were placed before human and economic development. The results of such reform on the people was calamitous as it brought about major famine to the Soviet Union. Certain agricultural region collapsed.

The cruel and ill-considered measures of the communist reforms set the notion of human development back. Till date Russia is yet to recover. Communism in China brought the nations outrageous inflation under control thus significantly stabilizing the economy. An equitable distribution of food was also achieved during that period. Land reform programs were launched as well as policies which saw beefed up security from the police.

Communism in the Soviet Union only brought further deterioration to the already degraded economy of the Soviets. Reforms which were masked under ruthless and reckless programs of military industrialization. It should be noted that the Soviet programs did ensue a great military industry, but this was attained at the cost vast human deprivation and suffering as well as the reckless abuse of the environment. Many believe that the Chinese communist era resulted in vast and significant improvements in the welfare and life of the Chinese people.

In that era life expectancy, contrary to popular speculations more than doubled from 33 years to Infant mortality rate saw a significant decline. As a matter of fact infant mortality rate in Shanghai during that era was lower in New York City. What the statics above reveal is that during Chinese communism, there was a profound decline in violence of daily life and improved implanted social policies. Another important factor was the rise in the extent of literacy which increased in a span of a generation form about fifteen percent in to about eighty percent in Kane, The Communist social policies of the Soviets was a far cry from that of the Chinese.

Many deemed it as terrible and almost incomprehensible. So vicious was were these policies that is applications on the people were arbitrary, unpredictable and indiscriminate to the point where it had induced a mass frenzy in the already frightened citizens of the Soviet Union.

The process was so bad that it turned friends against friends and family members and close relatives against each other. Before the advent of communist rule in China, the country was dominated by foreign imperialist powers. The Chinese economy before communism was near rock bottom in world development scale. The country had very little industries and its agricultural sector was profoundly underdeveloped. China then was depicted as having the most ruinous inflation in world history.

Corruption was on the high, the country was flooded with vast criminal and underworld of gangsters and secret societies. The country also had an estimated ninety million opium addicts. This was the level of decay in the social and moral framework of the Chinese nation before communism. For women, life was a living hell: Arranged marriages, and child brides were a widespread phenomenon and social practice. Women were susceptible to foot binding and other forms of social ills. Prostitution and the courtesan phenomenon were other social ills of the Chinese women were compelled to endure.

The mentioned societal ills and extreme polarization of wealth that was existent in the Chinese society before the rise of communism were wiped out by the Chinese revolution of the masses, and via the creation of the proletarian state power and the establishment of a just economic and social order, a China that unleashed the power of the masses and served the best interest of the ordinary citizen. For a proper understanding of the communist doctrine, it is necessary to grasp the basic principles of Marxian doctrine which are — 1 materialistic conception and interpretation of history; 2 the labour theory of surplus value 3 the law of concentration of capital; and 4 class war.

Marx interpreted all historical movements in terms of the material conditions of life. The appropriation of land and other means of production for private use and profit has all through history divided society sharply into two hostile; lasses. Just as in the past the interests of the serf or landless slave peasant were opposed to those of his feudal lord, so also in the present industrial age, the interests of the capitalist class and those of the factory workers are opposed to each other.

This provides thesis and anti-thesis. The propertied class with all the means of production at their command, buys the services of the penniless working class which depends for its livelihood upon its sale of labour power.

Labour, according to Marx, is the sole generator of value and what is called profit accrues to the capitalist employer simply by the process of depriving and exploiting labourers of the full value of their labour. The result is that the profit of capitalist owner increases while the condition of the workers deteriorates proportionately. It is like the generation of positive and negative energy in the dynamo at two ends at the same time.

The history of mankind is the history of this deprivation. At one stage, things become unbearable and the system bursts. In fact, in Nature it has been found that after the process of evolution there comes a stage when the tegument of the tree bursts; this follows leap or jump, like water becoming steam at degree heat a qualitative change.

This is known as Dialectical Materialism that advocates complete change at times. But the capitalistic system of production, according to Marx, carries, embedded in itself, its own seed or destruction.

The growth of large-scale production leads to the extinction of small-scale producers who, unable to compete with their large-scale rivals, are ultimately driven to swell the rank of ordinary workers. The independent artisan becomes a wage earner, and the number of disgruntled proletariat increases. This is how trade Unions originate and acquire power. At the same time, by keeping down wages, the capitalists unconsciously cause a shrinkage of their home-market and they have to finance and organise their sale of goods in foreign markets.

Thus, Marx's slogan is — "workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains. The constant endeavour of the capitalist class to keep down wages arouses workers to organised resistance.

There also starts infighting among the capitalists for class of individual interests. This is known as the inner class contradiction among the bourgeoisie. This ultimately may explode in the form of on open revolution to overthrow the capitalist order and seize the machinery of the State.

This will be immediately followed by the expropriation of the means of production by the proletariat from private hands. The Communists then hold power.

The consummation of a proletarian revolution results in the abolition of classes and all forms of exploitation of man-by-man. Then follows a period of Dictatorship of the Proletariat, as a prelude to the establishment of a classless society. In the former Soviet Union this dictatorship of the proletariat regime, through military help, continued for more than 75 years before it broke down after the operation of perestoika and glassnost of Gorbachov.

Closely following Marx, Lenin, the maker of modern Russia, states that the attainment of full communism involves two stages, viz, 1 the Revolutionary stage 2 the post-Revolutionary stage.


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Communism in China - Communism is a system of government, a political ideology that rejects private ownership and promotes a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of all property and the means of production, where by all work is shared and all proceeds are commonly owned.

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'Communism' has been far more influential a force of late, than any other politico-economic doctrine which has moved humanity in the quest of a new social order. It promises efficient production and equitable distribution, ensuring economic self-sufficiency to all, and a . Free Essay: In the beginning Communism seemed to the people of Russia as a utopian ideal. The promise of the elimination of classes, of guaranteed.

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Free sample – Communism – seek through the finest essay, term paper and research paper samples, written by our professionals – HandMadeWritings. Communism had one of the greatest political impacts than any other political ideas in the 20th century around the world. What is important and interesting about communism is its background, concept, and why many countries apply to this idea. This essay will generally focus on the background.