The discussion of each painting during the tour was largely student-directed, with the museum educators facilitating the discourse and providing commentary beyond the names of the work and the artist and a brief description only when students requested it.
This format is now the norm in school tours of art museums. The aversion to having museum educators provide information about works of art is motivated in part by progressive education theories and by a conviction among many in museum education that students retain very little factual information from their tours.
Our research suggests that students actually retain a great deal of factual information from their tours. Students who received a tour of the museum were able to recall details about the paintings they had seen at very high rates. For example, 88 percent of the students who saw the Eastman Johnson painting At the Camp—Spinning Yarns and Whittling knew when surveyed weeks later that the painting depicts abolitionists making maple syrup to undermine the sugar industry, which relied on slave labor.
Since there was no guarantee that these facts would be raised in student-directed discussions, and because students had no particular reason for remembering these details there was no test or grade associated with the tours , it is impressive that they could recall historical and sociological information at such high rates.
These results suggest that art could be an important tool for effectively conveying traditional academic content, but this analysis cannot prove it. The control-group performance was hardly better than chance in identifying factual information about these paintings, but they never had the opportunity to learn the material.
The high rate of recall of factual information by students who toured the museum demonstrates that the tours made an impression. The students could remember important details about what they saw and discussed. Beyond recalling the details of their tour, did a visit to an art museum have a significant effect on students? Our study demonstrates that it did.
For example, students randomly assigned to receive a school tour of Crystal Bridges later displayed demonstrably stronger ability to think critically about art than the control group. We then asked students to write short essays in response to two questions: What do you think is going on in this painting?
And, what do you see that makes you think that? These are standard prompts used by museum educators to spark discussion during school tours. We stripped the essays of all identifying information and had two coders rate the compositions using a seven-item rubric for measuring critical thinking that was developed by researchers at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. The measure is based on the number of instances that students engaged in the following in their essays: Our measure of critical thinking is the sum of the counts of these seven items.
In total, our research team blindly scored 3, essays. For of those essays, two researchers scored them independently. The scores they assigned to the same essay were very similar, demonstrating that we were able to measure critical thinking about art with a high degree of inter-coder reliability.
We express the impact of a school tour of Crystal Bridges on critical-thinking skills in terms of standard-deviation effect sizes. Overall, we find that students assigned by lottery to a tour of the museum improve their ability to think critically about art by 9 percent of a standard deviation relative to the control group. The benefit for disadvantaged groups is considerably larger see Figure 1.
Rural students, who live in towns with fewer than 10, people, experience an increase in critical-thinking skills of nearly one-third of a standard deviation. Students from high-poverty schools those where more than 50 percent of students receive free or reduced-price lunches experience an 18 percent effect-size improvement in critical thinking about art, as do minority students. A large amount of the gain in critical-thinking skills stems from an increase in the number of observations that students made in their essays.
Students who went on a tour became more observant, noticing and describing more details in an image. Being observant and paying attention to detail is an important and highly useful skill that students learn when they study and discuss works of art. Additional research is required to determine if the gains in critical thinking when analyzing a work of art would transfer into improved critical thinking about other, non-art-related subjects.
Visiting an art museum exposes students to a diversity of ideas, peoples, places, and time periods. That broadening experience imparts greater appreciation and understanding. We see the effects in significantly higher historical empathy and tolerance measures among students randomly assigned to a school tour of Crystal Bridges.
Historical empathy is the ability to understand and appreciate what life was like for people who lived in a different time and place. This is a central purpose of teaching history, as it provides students with a clearer perspective about their own time and place.
To measure historical empathy, we included three statements on the survey with which students could express their level of agreement or disagreement: We combined these items into a scale measuring historical empathy. Students who went on a tour of Crystal Bridges experience a 6 percent of a standard deviation increase in historical empathy.
Among rural students, the benefit is much larger, a 15 percent of a standard deviation gain. We can illustrate this benefit by focusing on one of the items in the historical empathy scale.
Among rural participants, 69 percent of the treatment-group students agree with this statement compared to 62 percent of the control group. The fact that Crystal Bridges features art from different periods in American history may have helped produce these gains in historical empathy.
To measure tolerance we included four statements on the survey to which students could express their level of agreement or disagreement: We combined these items into a scale measuring the general effect of the tour on tolerance. Overall, receiving a school tour of an art museum increases student tolerance by 7 percent of a standard deviation. As with critical thinking, the benefits are much larger for students in disadvantaged groups. Rural students who visited Crystal Bridges experience a 13 percent of a standard deviation improvement in tolerance.
For students at high-poverty schools, the benefit is 9 percent of a standard deviation. The improvement in tolerance for students who went on a tour of Crystal Bridges can be illustrated by the responses to one of the items within the tolerance scale. But for students randomly assigned to receive a school tour of the art museum, only 32 percent agree with censoring art critical of America. Among rural students, 34 percent of the control group would censor art compared to 30 percent for the treatment group.
In high-poverty schools, 37 percent of the control-group students would censor compared to 32 percent of the treatment-group students. These differences are not huge, but neither is the intervention. These changes represent the realistic improvement in tolerance that results from a half-day experience at an art museum. Interest in Art Museums. Perhaps the most important outcome of a school tour is whether it cultivates an interest among students in returning to cultural institutions in the future.
If visiting a museum helps improve critical thinking, historical empathy, tolerance, and other outcomes not measured in this study, then those benefits would compound for students if they were more likely to frequent similar cultural institutions throughout their life.
The direct effects of a single visit are necessarily modest and may not persist, but if school tours help students become regular museum visitors, they may enjoy a lifetime of enhanced critical thinking, tolerance, and historical empathy. We measured how school tours of Crystal Bridges develop in students an interest in visiting art museums in two ways: We included a series of items in the survey designed to gauge student interest:.
Interest in visiting art museums among students who toured the museum is 8 percent of a standard deviation higher than that in the randomized control group. Among rural students, the increase is much larger: Students at high-poverty schools score 11 percent of a standard deviation higher on the cultural consumer scale if they were randomly assigned to tour the museum.
And minority students gain 10 percent of a standard deviation in their desire to be art consumers. Among rural participants, 73 percent of the treatment-group students agree versus 63 percent of the control group. In high-poverty schools, 74 percent would recommend art museums to their friends compared to 68 percent of the control group.
And among minority students, 72 percent of those who received a tour would tell their friends to visit an art museum, relative to 67 percent of the control group. Students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds, are more likely to have positive feelings about visiting museums if they receive a school tour. We also measured whether students are more likely to visit Crystal Bridges in the future if they received a school tour.
All students who participated in the study during the first semester, including those who did not receive a tour, were provided with a coupon that gave them and their families free entry to a special exhibit at Crystal Bridges.
The coupons were coded so that we could determine the applicant group to which students belonged. Students had as long as six months after receipt of the coupon to use it.
We collected all redeemed coupons and were able to calculate how many adults and youths were admitted. Though students in the treatment group received 49 percent of all coupons that were distributed, 58 percent of the people admitted to the special exhibit with those coupons came from the treatment group. This type of information is critical in many marketing decisions, such as forecasting demand for a new product. It is also used to predict what may happen if something is changed, such as a key marketing variable decision e.
Video: Purposes of Research: Exploratory, Descriptive & Explanatory There is a parallel between how people come to understand something and the process of researching an idea. This lesson explores the purposes of research as well as three approaches to research in psychology: exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory.
MAIN PURPOSE OF A TOURISM TRIP This is defined as the purpose for which for which the trip wastaken In the absence of this mainpurpose the trip would not have been taken Where more than one parties travel and have different individualpurposes, the main purpose is .
May 20, · Research Resource & Program Project Applications A site visit is held according to these procedures if the reviewers need to acquire information that cannot be . The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, 'pure research' and 'applied research'.
Monitoring & Auditing of Clinical Trials Developed by Center for Cancer Research, National • Describe the purposes and regulations related to monitoring of • Describe the preparation required for and what is reviewed during a monitoring visit. • Describe three . The Monitoring Visit Denise Owensby, CCRP Sr. Clinical Research Coordinator clinical research at this site. Objectives Upon completion of this module you should be able to: Purpose of Monitoring Visits Verify that rights & well-being of subjects are protected.